Pledge and dedicate to achieve Cervical cancer Mukth Bharath
Cervical Cancer is the Cancer that affects the “ mouth” of the uterus
Why is Cervical Cancer important to you?
- Cervical Cancer is the commonest cancer in Indian Women, 200 women die every day in India, 8 women die every hour, 1 woman every 7 minutes
- India makes up only 16% of the world’s population, but has 27% of the world’s total cervical cancer cases and deaths every year
- New cervical cancer cases diagnosed annually -India : 1,32,082 – World : 4,93,243
- Deaths due to cervical cancer annually -India : 74,118 – World : 2,73,505
- Cervical cancer usually has no signs and symptoms in its early stages
- There is low awareness about cervical cancer
Who is at risk of Cervical cancer ?
- All sexually active women are potentially at risk of cervical cancer as they could have been infected by HPV
- Though the risk begins early, cervical cancer is most commonly found in women in their 40’s and 50’s
Top Cause of Cervical Cancer: HPV Infection
- The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a large group of viruses. About 40 types can infect the genital areas, and some have high risk for cervical cancer.
- Genital HPV infections usually clear up on their own. If one becomes chronic, it can cause changes in the cells of the cervix. And it’s these changes that may lead to cancer. Worldwide, over 90% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV infection.
The 4 most important types of HPV
HPV 16 & HPV 18– >75% of Cervical Ca.,>50% of Vaginal & Vulvar Cancer
HPV 6 & HPV 11 & HPV 16 — 90% of Anogenital warts
How does HPV spread?
Sexual activity spreads the virus, It’s one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases(STD). About half of those with HPV are aged 15 to 24.
HPV infections – what you should know
- Large number of women get HPV infection sometime during life time (80% by the age of 50). your immune system usually prevents the virus from doing serious harm.
- The dangerous types of HPV can stay in the body for years without causing any symptoms – you may not know you have it.
- Majority would clear infection without developing any disease. Few women develop precancerous lesions, cervical intraepithelial Neoplasia, which resolves spontaneously but in some cases it may progress to invasive cervical cancer and tends to spread to surrounding areas .
Other risk factors for cervical cancer
- Early marriage and starting sexual life at an early age
- Early Child birth, Multiple Child births and unsafe abortions
- Unprotected sex
- Multiple Sex Partners, , Casual sex
- Family History/Hereditary
- Oral Contraceptive pills
How can you protect yourself?
Awareness about all aspects of cervical cancer, especially the importance and mode of its prevention is very crucial
- Vaccination is the only true form of “prevention” – stops the disease from happening in the first place
- There are two vaccines available today:
- Quadrivalent (“four type”)-Protects from 6,11,16,18
Partial protection from 33, 35, 41 and 7 other types
- Bivalent (“two type”)Protects from 16, 18
Partial protection from 33, 35 and 41
Who should take the vaccine and when?
Ideally, the vaccine should be taken as early as possible after the age of 9 years but girls and women of any age up to 45 can benefit from this vaccine.
Expectant mothers should not take the vaccine during their pregnancy.
What is the dose schedule of the vaccine?
The quadrivalent vaccine is given in three doses as follows:
0 2 and 6 months
The bivalent is given in a similar schedule at 0,1 and 6 months.
Early Detection : Screening with Pap Test
PAP’s smear test is a Simple, quick, painless procedure – takes 5 minutes
If Test is Abnormal,
- Scheduling Colposcopy — an exam with a lighted magnifying device — may be necessary to get a better look at any changes in the cervical tissue and also take a sample to be examined under a microscope.
- If abnormal cells are precancerous, they can then be removed or destroyed.
- Treatments are highly successful in preventing precancerous cells from developing into cancer.
Early Detection : HPV DNA Test
- In some cases, doctors may offer the option of the HPV DNA test in addition to a Pap test.
- This test checks for the presence of high-risk forms of HPV. It may be used in combination with a Pap test to screen for cervical cancer in women over 30 years of age.
Precancerous stage – Treatment
- Conservative treatment ( save the uterus and part of the cervix)
- Burn the abnormal part of cervix with electric current (electro-cautery)
- Destroy the abnormal area by freezing it ( cold co-agulation)
- Cervical Cancer is the most common cancer affecting Indian women
- It is a preventable disease
- We can protect our women to be almost 100% safe with a combination of awareness, vaccination and screening